Approaches[ edit ] One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions:
Before Darwin[ edit ] The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system. The word "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo. Darwin[ edit ] The possibility of linking humans with earlier apes by descent became clear only after with the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Speciesin which he argued for the idea of the evolution of new species from earlier ones.
Darwin's book did not address the question of human evolution, saying only that "Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history.
Huxley argued for human evolution from apes by illustrating many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes, and did so particularly in his book Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature.
However, many of Darwin's early supporters such as Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Lyell did not initially agree that the origin of the mental capacities and the moral sensibilities of humans could be explained by natural selectionthough this later changed.
Darwin applied the theory of evolution and sexual selection to humans when he published The Descent of Man in Neanderthal remains were discovered in a limestone quarry inthree years before the publication of On the Origin of Species, and Neanderthal fossils had been discovered in Gibraltar even earlier, but it was originally claimed that these were human remains of a creature suffering some kind of illness.
The child's remains were a remarkably well-preserved tiny skull and an endocast of the brain. Also, the specimen showed short canine teethand the position of the foramen magnum the hole in the skull where the spine enters was evidence of bipedal locomotion.
All of these traits convinced Dart that the Taung Child was a bipedal human ancestor, a transitional form between apes and humans. During the s and s, hundreds of fossils were found in East Africa in the regions of the Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana.
The driving force of these searches was the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakeyand later their son Richard and daughter-in-law Meave —all successful and world-renowned fossil hunters and paleoanthropologists.
From the fossil beds of Olduvai and Lake Turkana they amassed specimens of the early hominins: These finds cemented Africa as the cradle of humankind.
In the late s and the s, Ethiopia emerged as the new hot spot of paleoanthropology after "Lucy"the most complete fossil member of the species Australopithecus afarensiswas found in by Donald Johanson near Hadar in the desertic Afar Triangle region of northern Ethiopia.
Although the specimen had a small brain, the pelvis and leg bones were almost identical in function to those of modern humans, showing with certainty that these hominins had walked erect. White in the s, including Ardipithecus ramidus and Ardipithecus kadabba. The skeletal anatomy combines primitive features known from australopithecines with features known from early hominins.
The individuals show signs of having been deliberately disposed of within the cave near the time of death. The fossils were dated close toyears ago,  and thus are not a direct ancestor but a contemporary with the first appearance of larger-brained anatomically modern humans.
By constructing a calibration curve of the ID of species' pairs with known divergence times in the fossil record, the data could be used as a molecular clock to estimate the times of divergence of pairs with poorer or unknown fossil records.
In their seminal paper in ScienceSarich and Wilson estimated the divergence time of humans and apes as four to five million years ago,  at a time when standard interpretations of the fossil record gave this divergence as at least 10 to as much as 30 million years.
Subsequent fossil discoveries, notably "Lucy", and reinterpretation of older fossil materials, notably Ramapithecusshowed the younger estimates to be correct and validated the albumin method. On the basis of a separation from the orangutan between 10 and 20 million years ago, earlier studies of the molecular clock suggested that there were about 76 mutations per generation that were not inherited by human children from their parents; this evidence supported the divergence time between hominins and chimps noted above.
However, a study in Iceland of 78 children and their parents suggests a mutation rate of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum extends the separation between humans and chimps to an earlier period greater than 7 million years ago Ma.
Additional research with offspring of wild chimp populations in 8 locations suggests that chimps reproduce at age And these data suggest that Ardipithecus 4. Furthermore, analysis of the two species' genes in provides evidence that after human ancestors had started to diverge from chimpanzees, interspecies mating between "proto-human" and "proto-chimps" nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool: A new comparison of the human and chimp genomes suggests that after the two lineages separated, they may have begun interbreeding A principal finding is that the X chromosomes of humans and chimps appear to have diverged about 1.
There were in fact two splits between the human and chimp lineages, with the first being followed by interbreeding between the two populations and then a second split. The suggestion of a hybridization has startled paleoanthropologistswho nonetheless are treating the new genetic data seriously.
InMeave Leakey discovered Australopithecus anamensis.
The find was overshadowed by Tim D. White's discovery of Ardipithecus ramidus, which pushed back the fossil record to 4. InMartin Pickford and Brigitte Senut discovered, in the Tugen Hills of Kenyaa 6-million-year-old bipedal hominin which they named Orrorin tugenensis.
And ina team led by Michel Brunet discovered the skull of Sahelanthropus tchadensis which was dated as 7.As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component.
Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. In biological terms, a human being, or human, is any member of the mammalian species Homo sapiens, a group of ground-dwelling, tailless primates that are distributed worldwide and are characterized by bipedalism and the capacity for speech and language, with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects.
Humans share with other primates the characteristics of opposing. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great regardbouddhiste.com process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as.
There were also no observable differences between the patterns of protein evolution on the bonobo lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage using our comparison of protein evolution and similarities via dN/dS ratios based on the reference genomes of each species.
Approaches. One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions: "Continuity theories" build on the idea that language exhibits so much complexity that one cannot imagine it simply appearing from nothing in its final form; therefore it must have evolved from earlier pre-linguistic systems among . This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (February ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). In biological terms, a human being, or human, is any member of the mammalian species Homo sapiens, a group of ground-dwelling, tailless primates that are distributed worldwide and are characterized by bipedalism and the capacity for speech and language, with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects. Humans share with other primates the characteristics of opposing.
The new species Homo naledi was discovered in in a remote cave chamber of the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. This species survived until between , and , y ago, placing it in continental Africa at the same time as the early ancestors of modern humans were arising.
It is now understood that while there were considerable anatomical differences between the early hominins, they also shared a number of important traits. By 3 million years ago, most of them probably were nearly as efficient at bipedal locomotion as humans. Like people, but unlike apes, the bones of their pelvis, or hip region, were shortened from top to bottom and bowl-shaped (shown below).