Approaches to research papers

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Approaches to research papers

Resources for learning technical writing

All you do is stare at a blank sheet of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab.

Our research papers are not typical "lab reports. Such an assignment hardly represents the kind of writing you might be doing in your eventual career. Written and oral communications skills are probably the most universal qualities sought by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers.

You alone are responsible for developing such skills to a high level. Resources for learning technical writing Before you begin your first writing assignment, please consult all of the following resources, in order to gain the most benefit from the experience.

General form of a typical research article Specific guidelines if any for the assignment — see the writeups on individual lab studies McMillan, VE.

ISBN REQUIRED for Bioc, recommended for other science courses that include writing As you polish up your writing skills please make use of the following resources Instructor feedback on previous assignments Common errors in student research papers Selected writing rules somewhat less serious than the other resources For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper Bioc General form of a research paper An objective of organizing a research paper is to allow people to read your work selectively.

When I research a topic, I may be interested in just the methods, a specific result, the interpretation, or perhaps I just want to see a summary of the paper to determine if it is relevant to my study.

To this end, many journals require the following sections, submitted in the order listed, each section to start on a new page. There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper.

The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract. Your papers are to adhere to the form and style required for the Journal of Biological Chemistry, requirements that are shared by many journals in the life sciences.

General style Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. To make a paper readable Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc.

Stay focused on the research topic of the paper Use paragraphs to separate each important point except for the abstract Indent the first line of each paragraph Present your points in logical order Use present tense to report well accepted facts - for example, 'the grass is green' Use past tense to describe specific results - for example, 'When weed killer was applied, the grass was brown' Avoid informal wording, don't address the reader directly, and don't use jargon, slang terms, or superlatives Avoid use of superfluous pictures - include only those figures necessary to presenting results Title Page Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package.

Include the name s and address es of all authors, and date submitted. Abstract The summary should be two hundred words or less. See the examples in the writing portfolio package. General intent An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress.

In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions. Writing an abstract Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written?

Economy of words is important throughout any paper, but especially in an abstract. However, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one purpose.

For example, "In order to learn the role of protein synthesis in early development of the sea urchin, newly fertilized embryos were pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, to provide a time course of changes in synthetic rate, as measured by total counts per minute cpm. The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results.

Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. Purpose of the study - hypothesis, overall question, objective Model organism or system and brief description of the experiment Results, including specific data - if the results are quantitative in nature, report quantitative data; results of any statistical analysis shoud be reported Important conclusions or questions that follow from the experiment s Style: Single paragraph, and concise As a summary of work done, it is always written in past tense An abstract should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a figure or table Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if absolutely necessary What you report in an abstract must be consistent with what you reported in the paper Corrrect spelling, clarity of sentences and phrases, and proper reporting of quantities proper units, significant figures are just as important in an abstract as they are anywhere else Introduction Your introductions should not exceed two pages double spaced, typed.

General intent The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it.

Approaches to research papers

It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. Writing an introduction The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points.

Approaches vary widely, however for our studies the following approach can produce an effective introduction. Describe the importance significance of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place?

Provide a broad context. Defend the model - why did you use this particular organism or system?Advocacy/participatory approach to research (emancipatory) To some degree, researchers adopting an advocacy/participatory approach feel that the approaches to research described so far do not respond to the needs or situation of people from marginalised or vulnerable groups.

weaknesses of research methodologies in social science, quantitative and qualitative approaches. The time scope for this study commenced in March within one week to .

3 research papers point to new approaches in employment equity It’s not about fixing the pipeline. It’s about making it bigger. By Brian Eastwood | August 8, Why It Matters.

Efforts to improve gender equity in hiring and pay by focusing on implicit bias, however well-intentioned, have failed to break the glass ceiling. New research.

The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative research and quantitative research. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior.

Family Counseling Approach Research Paper COUN Daphane Moore Abstract A family counseling approach is a counseling theory that includes a combination of a variety of techniques, interventions, and tenets are used to address the needs of family members. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy developed by Sigmond Freud.

For this aspect that characterizes a good research methodology, indicate how the research approach fits with the general study, considering the literature review outline and format, and the following sections.

How to write a research paper