It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away.
History[ edit ] Ina national council made up of representatives of thirty government and private organizations was formed to address the problem of ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at U.
This council recommended the development and administration of the TOEFL exam for the time frame. Nations which are part of the English-speaking world from most Commonwealth realms to former British colonies e. However, this does not apply to some Commonwealth nations outside the Anglospheresuch as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc.
The CBT was discontinued in September and these scores are no longer valid[ citation needed ]. Initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months. It is now possible to take cefr writing assessments test within one to four weeks in most countries.
The test cannot be taken more than once every 12 days. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation.
Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.
Listening The Listening section consists of questions on passages, each 3—5 minutes in length. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider.
The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions.
Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
Speaking The Speaking section consists of six tasks: In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently.
In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk.
In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material.
Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking.
Writing The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it.
The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices.Trinity College London ESOL is an international English Language examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and has been offering English language examinations since Trinity College London's exams are taken by over , candidates in over 60 countries each year.
Language . Literature has been a subject of study in many countries at a secondary or tertiary level, but until recently has not been given much emphasis in the EFL/ESL classroom.
Familiarize yourself with the Oral Proficiency (OPI) administered by Language Testing International. We are providers of accessible online English language and maths testing for educators, employers and other organisations.
English tests are aligned to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
Welcome to the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines online. Here you will find the most current version of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines for Speaking, Writing, Listening, and Reading made interactive through the inclusion of glossed terms and multimedia exemplars.
You can explore the Guidelines by skill or by level, listen to and read . Internationally Recognized Language Examinations Official FAO Languages Provider Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL) B1 - FAO level B.