About the author Introduction Weather modification is the effort of man to change naturally occurring weather, for the benefit of someone.
Conclusion Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to calculate.
Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly.
Experts in computer security, who are not attorneys, speak of "information warfare". While such "information warfare" is just another name for computer crime, the word "warfare" does fairly denote the amount of damage inflicted on society.
Two comments on word usage in this essay: However, to most users of English, the word "hacker" refers to computer criminals, and that is the usage that I have adopted in this essay. The legal problem of obscenity on the Internet is mostly the same as the legal problem of obscenity in books and magazines, except for some technical issues of personal jurisdiction on the Internet.
Similarly, many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers: Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information stored on the hard disk inside the computer is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers with proprietary information.
Using the Internet or online services to solicit sex is similar to other forms of solicitation of sex, and so is not a new crime. Using computers can be another way to commit either larceny or fraud.
In contrast to merely using computer equipment as a tool to commit old crimes, this essay is concerned with computer crimes that are new ways to harm people. E-mails with bogus From: These acts might be punishable by existing criminal statutes that prohibit impersonation, forgery, deceit, or fraud.
However, a judge might decide that the specific language in old statutes about writing or signature does not apply to e-mail. Similar issues arise in both: Unauthorized Use Unauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms: The criminal reads or copies confidential or proprietary information, but data is neither deleted nor changed.
For example, change a grade on a school transcript, add "money" to a checking account, etc. Unauthorized changing of data is generally a fraudulent act.
Deleting entire files could be an act of vandalism or sabotage. Denying service to authorized users. On a modern time-sharing computer, any user takes some time and disk space, which is then not available to other users. Duringcomputer programs and data were generally stored on cardboard cards with holes punched in them.
If a vandal were to break into an office and either damage or steal the punch cards, the vandal could be adequately punished under traditional law of breaking and entering, vandalism, or theft.
However, after aboutit became common to enter programs and data from remote terminals a keyboard and monitor using a modem and a telephone line.
The traditional laws were no longer adequate to punish criminals who used computer modems.This website provides responsible criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report by senior military, intelligence and government officials. It provides experienced professional opinions about the terrorist attacks on the world trade center and the pentagon.
Looks a Lee Harvey Oswald's personality, showing that he fit the clinical profile of a certain kind of murderer. Introduction Weather modification is the effort of man to change naturally occurring weather, for the benefit of someone.
The best-known kind of weather modification is cloud seeding, with the goal of producing rain or snow, suppressing hail (which can ruin crops), or weakening hurricanes.
This essay is a companion to my earlier essay, Weather Modification Law in the USA, which concentrates on. revision of ceiling rates for reimbursement of the cost of cardiac pacemaker, aicd, combo-device,rotablator and aortic stent graft for beneficiaries of cghs/cs(ma) aug This website provides responsible criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report by senior military, intelligence and government officials.
It provides experienced professional opinions about the terrorist attacks on the world trade center and the pentagon. A collection of articles about Reporting from The New Yorker, including news, in-depth reporting, commentary, and analysis.