Pinterest An East India Company grandee. Jahangir, who had a taste for exotica and wild beasts, welcomed Sir Thomas Roe with the same enthusiasm he had shown for the arrival of the first turkey in India, and questioned Roe closely on the distant, foggy island he came from, and the strange things that went on there. For the committee who planned the House of Commons paintings, this marked the beginning of British engagement with India:
Ganges Plain[ edit ] After BCE, some Vedic tribes began migrating to the Ganges Plainpresent-day India, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, Pakistan and the modern world essay hierarchy of four social classesand the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities.
These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom.
The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended.
King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great.
However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of KalatKhuzdar and Panjgur and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the Kharan Desert.
Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time. Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established BC with its capital at Pushkalavati Charsadda.
Gandhara Satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic the official language of Achaemenidsdeveloped here and remained the national script of Gandhara until AD. Hindush satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Taxila. The satrapy was established in upper Punjab presumably in the Potohar plateau region.
Arachosia satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Kandahar. Arachosia was one of the larger provinces covering much of lower Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of modern-day Pakistan and Helmand province of what is today Afghanistan.
Sattagydia satrapy, established in BC in what is today Sindh. Sattagydia is mentioned for the first time in the Behistun inscription of Darius the Great as one of the provinces in revolt while the king was in Babylon.
The revolt was presumably suppressed in BC. The satrapy disappears from sources after BC, possibly being mentioned by another name or included with other regions. It had been conquered much earlier by Cyrus The Great.
What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the Darius inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the Histories of Herodotus and the later Alexander Chronicles Arrian, Strabo et al.
These sources list three Indus Valley tributaries or conquered territories that were subordinated to the Persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the Persian Kings: Gandhara, Sattagydia and Hindush. Ror Dynasty The Ror dynasty Sindhi: The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps.
In BC, Alexander married Roxana a princess of the former Bactria satrapy to cement his relations with his new territories. Now firmly under Macedonian rule, Alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley.
The rationale for the Indus campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought ended around the vicinity of the River Indus. In the winter of BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority.
Ambhithen ruler of Taxila in the former Hindush satrapy complied, but the remaining tribes and clans in the former satraps of Gandhara, Arachosia, Sattagydia and Gedrosia rejected Alexander's offer. By spring of BC, Alexander began on his Indus expedition from Bactira, leaving behind horses and 10, soldiers.
He divided his army into two groups. The larger force would enter the Indus Valley through the Khyber passjust as Darius had done years earlier, while a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander entered through a northern route, possibly through Broghol or Dorah Pass near Chitral.
Alexander was commanding a group of shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the tribes of the former Gandhara satrapy. The first tribe they encountered were the Aspasioi tribe of the Kunar Valleywho initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart.
However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40, people were enslaved. The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, Bazira Barikot and Massaga.Oct 12, · Pakistan and The Modern World Reference The given lines have been extracted from Pakistan and the Modern World, a fine example of oratory and a true chronicle of history.
Pakistan and the Modern World Q. No. 1: What were the differences between the Hindus and the Muslims?
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Pakistan and Modern World, Urdu Translation, Lecture No 1.
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