Dec 02, Mason Neil rated it liked it This is a textbook I read for class, but if I read it cover to cover why should I not add it to my Goodreads list?
Reviews — by WWG 5: Focusing on the Iroquois, a culture of five tribal groups who lived to the west of the Hudson, this book delves deeply into original texts and documents to provide a detailed history of the interactions of the Iroquois with Europeans from first contact.
The value of this book for me, as I study the history and culture of the Hudson Valley through the late s, is that it gives such an exhaustive account of how Indians conducted their affairs with the Europeans.
Richter notes that many native groups shared cultural perspectives and behaviors with their neighbors, even those of distinct groups. The communal lifestyle; the community-oriented religion; the elaborate rituals of unity; the emphasis on consensus and the reality of independent, even renegade, action; the matrilineal family structure; the gender divisions and the predominance of divorce are all traits that appear to be broader than the Iroquois groups.
The book adds dimension to the early colonial world. Richter especially concentrates on a reconstruction of the religious dimensions of Iroquois culture and throughout the history shows how the Iroquois view of death and ceremony affected their interactions with Europeans.
The pre-colonial Iroquois culture embodied values and behaviors quite alien to the European mindset. Often that person was someone captured from another tribe or enemy.
The increased fatalities resulting from European contact initiated increased captivity raids.
In addition, the adoption of new, more lethal weaponry—metal tipped arrows and then guns—escalated battle mortality and inspired even more captive-seeking. Parallel to the capturing, rituals of torture, execution, and dismemberment also played a part as a communal response to threats and attacks.
A second major component of Iroquois culture was the prominence of what to Europeans were time-consuming ceremonies, endless speechmaking, and rituals of gifting.
Europeans often ignored the elaborate interactive practices of the pre-literate culture, practices designed to define and inculcate historical knowledge and create unity of understanding as well as group bonds; in doing so, colonists identified themselves as outsiders, boors, and threats.
Village life was communal. Mainly agricultural, the Iroquois built large settlements characterized by the longhouse, in which families lived in compartments along the sides and shared central fires were spaced out along the main axis of the building.
Matrilineal families were the norm, with maternal brothers, not husbands, the main male authority.
Richter follows the economic and lifestyle disruptions brought about by European desires for pelts, the importing of European manufactures, and the missionary activities that were often intertwined with politics. Christianity itself was disruptive; the Christian saga was bizarre to native people, and Indians could not understand why a people whose religion focused so much on sin were themselves so prone to cheat, lie, drink and be all kinds of evil.
Most missionaries believed that only some natives were worthy of baptism and that faith had to be accompanied by a change in lifestyle, in everything from clothing to sexual behavior and family structure.
Many posited that Indians could only become Christians by relocating from their tribal homes, and missionaries established separate settlements for Christian Indians. In times of warfare, these settlements were safer than other areas and attracted adherents as a result, but the conversion process itself split Indian communities.Southern Perspective on Reconstruction Grade – 8th or 11th U.S.
History Length of class period – 47 minutes Find the summary of the effects of Reconstruction in your class’s textbook. Have They were conscious that in the ordeal through which they had passed, they had. JAMES M. MCPHERSON.
ORDEAL BY FIRE: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION LEGAL HISTORY 1. 1 (). Alabama Law Review [Vol. tional challenge was Reconstruction and its offspring was the Four- teenth Amendment. note contends that the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment is an interesting and overlooked.
Luke E. Harlow. Historians of Reconstruction are currently at a crossroads. Reconstruction remains one of the most controversial—and least understood—aspects of American history, and that controversy began in the era of the Civil War itself.
Mar 07, · The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization.
Chapel Hill: UNC, Daniel K. Richter.
Focusing on the Iroquois, a culture of five tribal groups who lived to the west of the Hudson, this book delves deeply into original texts and documents to provide a detailed. summary McPherson, James M. is the author of 'Ordeal by Fire The Civil War and Reconstruction', published under ISBN and ISBN [ read more ].
their Reconstruction policies and not on the basis of “high crimes and misdemeanors.” B. Multiple Choice Select the best answer and circle the corresponding letter.