The war began with the invasion of the Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy Regno d'Italiawhich was launched from Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did little when the former clearly violated Article X of the League's Covenant. Spanish Civil War The bombing of Guernica induring the Spanish Civil Warsparked fears abroad Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties When civil war broke out in Spain, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist rebelsled by General Francisco Franco. The Soviet Union supported the existing government, the Spanish Republic.
Visit Website Did you know? As early asin his memoir and propaganda tract "Mein Kampf" My StruggleAdolf Hitler had predicted a general European war that would result in "the extermination of the Jewish race in Germany.
In the mids, he began the rearmament of Germany, secretly and in violation of the Versailles Treaty. After signing alliances with Italy and Japan against the Soviet UnionHitler sent troops to occupy Austria in and the following year annexed Czechoslovakia.
Hitler had long planned an invasion of Poland, a nation to which Great Britain and France had guaranteed military support if it was attacked by Germany. The pact with Stalin meant that Hitler would not face a war on two fronts once he invaded Poland, and would have Soviet assistance in conquering and dividing the nation itself.
On September 17, Soviet troops invaded Poland from the east. Under attack from both sides, Poland fell quickly, and by early Germany and the Soviet Union had divided control over the nation, according to a secret protocol appended to the Nonaggression Pact. In fact, the Germans broke through the line with their tanks and planes and continued to the rear, rendering it useless.
Hitler now turned his attention to Britain, which had the defensive advantage of being separated from the Continent by the English Channel.
To pave the way for an amphibious invasion dubbed Operation Sea LionGerman planes bombed Britain extensively throughout the summer ofincluding night raids on London and other industrial centers that caused heavy civilian casualties and damage. Arguments between Hitler and his commanders delayed the next German advance until October, when it was stalled by a Soviet counteroffensive and the onset of harsh winter weather.
World War II in the Pacific With Britain facing Germany in Europe, the United States was the only nation capable of combating Japanese aggression, which by late included an expansion of its ongoing war with China and the seizure of European colonial holdings in the Far East.
On December 7,Japanese aircraft attacked the major U.
Germany and the other Axis Powers promptly declared war on the United States. After a long string of Japanese victories, the U. Pacific Fleet won the Battle of Midway in Junewhich proved to be a turning point in the war.
On Guadalcanal, one of the southern Solomon Islands, the Allies also had success against Japanese forces in a series of battles from August to Februaryhelping turn the tide further in the Pacific. In mid, Allied naval forces began an aggressive counterattack against Japan, involving a series of amphibious assaults on key Japanese-held islands in the Pacific.
The approach of winter, along with dwindling food and medical supplies, spelled the end for German troops there, and the last of them surrendered on January 31, Soviet troops soon advanced into Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania, while Hitler gathered his forces to drive the Americans and British back from Germany in the Battle of the Bulge December Januarythe last major German offensive of the war.
An intensive aerial bombardment in February preceded the Allied land invasion of Germany, and by the time Germany formally surrendered on May 8, Soviet forces had occupied much of the country.World War II (WWII or WW2), also called the Second World War and, in the Soviet Union, the Great Patriotic War, was a global war involving fighting in many parts of the world and many countries.
Most countries fought – but some started fighting in News about World War II (), including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.
The devastation of the Great War (as World War I was known at the time) had greatly destabilized Europe, and in many respects World War II grew out of issues left unresolved by that earlier conflict. World War II in Europe began when Hitler's Nazi Germany attacked Poland.
Germany had allies such as Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. These European countries were part of the Axis Powers. The countries that fought against Germany and the Axis Powers in Europe were called the Allied Powers.
The devastation of the Great War (as World War I was known at the time) had greatly destabilized Europe, and in many respects World War II grew out of issues left unresolved by that earlier. World War II, also called Second World War, conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years – The principal belligerents were the Axis powers— Germany, Italy, and Japan —and the Allies— France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China.